Boyd Orr News

Guest blog: Multi-disciplinary interactions under the Mexican sun – reflections from the ISVEE conference

Guest blog by Tiziana Lembo and Liliana Salvador with contributions from Rowland Kao and Louise Matthews.

What is the role of scientific conference? Is it to present our research and expound upon our scientific philosophies? Is it to hear people talking about the interesting research that they are developing? Or is it to meet old friends and make new ones while also traveling to interesting places? All of these aims and more were fulfilled when a group of us left umbrellas and raincoats behind to travel to sunny and warm Mérida, Mexico, for two stimulating weeks of ISVEE 14 (International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics) conference and workshops. The sun, heat, margaritas, “Jarana” tunes and dances, and the colourful decorations of the “Día de Muertos” created an ideal atmosphere for productive and enlightening scientific interactions.

Dia de muertos

The beginning of ISVEE 14 coincided with the “Dia de Muertos” (Day of the Dead), an ancient Mexican celebration to remember ancestors, family members and friends who have died. Traditionally, altars (“ofrendas”) are built that are laden with decorations, and favourite foods and beverages of teh departed. Above an altar dedicated to the famous Mexican painter Frida Kahlo de Rivera at La Casa Azul in Mexico City, where Frida Kahlo lived and worked most of her life (photo: Tiziana Lembo)

Every three years, ISVEE provides opportunities for academics from a range of different disciplines, policy-makers and stakeholders from the private sector to come together to share their expertise in innovative research, technological developments, and policy health agendas. By blending a wide range of disciplines to address health issues of global importance, the Boyd Orr Centre has a major role to play in all these discussions. What were our contributions to the ISVEE agenda this year?

 

Let’s start with our research on the very topical bovine Tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Rowland Kao discussed a subject that is very close to his heart – the transformative role of Whole-Genome-Sequencing (WGS) in elucidating complex transmission dynamics and disease maintenance patterns in multi-host systems. He provided examples of how the approach has been used by the Glasgow team and collaborators to expose the role of wildlife in the maintenance and transmission of bTB to cattle in different parts of the world, including Great Britain, the United States, and New Zealand. He contrasted currently available data with optimal data and listed some of the key features of an ideal dataset for WGS approaches, most importantly dense, representative sampling across all important hosts; representative samples across populations, but also the way that evolutionary analyses and model-based epidemiological approaches complement each other in interpreting these data.

 

Joseph Crisp and Liliana Salvador provided examples of the use of WGS to tackle bTB in New Zealand and US wildlife and cattle populations. Joe showed that the evolutionary substitution rates of M. bovis in his study populations, including cattle, possums and other wildlife are higher than previously thought and that non-cattle reservoirs were heavily involved in the maintenance of M. bovis in the sampled population. Liliana focused on bTB transmission amongst elk, deer and cattle in Michigan, US, and demonstrated that elk is the only one of these species with spatial and temporal clustering of M. bovis. In addition, for the available data, she showed that there is no evidence of transmission between elk and cattle and that cross-species transmission in Michigan is likely due to deer.

 

Liliana also presented her work on surveillance of bTB in Low Risk Areas (LRAs) in England. She showed that larger herds and herds that receive a high number of animals from high-risk areas are most exposed to infection. She also demonstrated that in LRAs there is no clear advantage of testing herds for bTB more frequently, since it would give no increase in the number of detected breakdowns, but the number of false positive would rise considerably. However, adopting risk-based surveillance, where herds that are at higher risk of infection are targeted, can improve the efficiency of the testing regime by increasing the number of identified cases and reducing the number of herds tested.

 

An entire session of the conference was dedicated to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) with a focus on the latest research efforts in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The work of the Boyd Orr Centre on endemic FMD in Tanzania featured prominently. Findings from micro-econometric studies investigating impacts of FMD outbreaks on individual livestock-owning communities were presented by Tom Marsh, a collaborator from Washington State University. These analyses have revealed that FMD outbreaks in cattle cause reductions in milk production, traction capacity and income from livestock sales, and that households would spend more on child education if they were not affected by milk losses due to FMD. Tiziana Lembo’s talk focused on epidemiological studies investigating temporal and spatial FMD virus dynamics in East Africa to devise appropriate control strategies. She showed that four different serotypes (A, O, SAT 1 and SAT 2) are responsible for FMD outbreaks in cattle in northern Tanzania, and that there is a pattern of serotypic dominance over time across Tanzania and Kenya, which allows us to predict the timing of epidemics of specific serotypes. The implications are that livestock vaccination could target given serotypes ahead of expected outbreaks, using monovalent vaccines, which are much more readily available than polyvalent vaccines needed to cover all of the wide range of serotypes circulating in these areas.

 

In her talk, Louise Matthews tackled the question of whether farmers would adopt a new diagnostic test for early detection of sheep scab at the subclinical stage. The advantages of using the test are that it would allow farmers to detect and treat the disease before clinical signs, reducing production losses, and also reducing transmission to other sheep and flocks. However, the farmers would need to pay for the test and may be reluctant to do so if they believe their flock to be at low risk of infection or if their neighbour is using the test, therefore not posing a transmission risk. These advantages and disadvantages can be assessed using a game theory framework that predicts whether farmers will adopt the test and how that uptake depends on test cost. The outcome was uptake of the test when farmers are at high risk (i.e. when they had experienced clinical sheep scab in the previous year), leading in the long term to a reduction in the proportion of infected farms by around 50%.

 

Harriet Auty, a collaborator from Scotland’s Rural College, presented research on human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in Tanzania. She talked about the relative importance of different wildlife species in the reservoir community for human trypanosomiasis in multi-host populations of the Serengeti National Park. She showed that species such as bushbuck, reedbuck and impala, which are frequently infected with T. brucei, might play an important role in the reservoir community, even though they are not regular food sources for the tsetse vector. Conversely, elephant or giraffe are frequently fed on but rarely infected, indicating they may play a role in dampening transmission, and suggesting how changes in wild species composition could impact on human disease risk.

 

As always, ISVEE also provided a forum for conference delegates to update and strengthen their skills in a number of methods and topics through workshops run by academic colleagues from around the world. For instance, Tiziana Lembo benefited from training and discussions in data management and analyses in R organised by the Swedish National Veterinary Institute, as well as in the use of economics for animal health decision-making coordinated by the Royal Veterinary College and collaborators.

Back to the rain and grey skies now, we have many memories and knowledge to treasure from the land of revolution, music and art.

Zapata

Street mural depicting Emiliano Zapata in Tepoztlan, State of Morelos, Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. Zapata remains an iconic figure in Mexico to this day (Photo: Tiziana Lembo).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ode to life.png

An ode to life (“Viva la Vida”) by the Mexican painter Frida Kahlo de Rivera, La Casa Azul, Mexico City (Photo: Tiziana Lembo).

The research presented and our attendance were funded by: BBSRC / DFID / Scottish Government (Combating Infectious Diseases of Livestock for International Development initiative), MSD Animal Health, and Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (Tiziana Lembo); BBSRC/DFID (Zoonoses in Emerging Livestock Systems) and EPIC (The Scottish Centre of Expertise in Animal Disease Outbreaks); Defra, NSF/BBSRC

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Let the Games begin! Interdisciplinary teams and individuals in science

Just this past week saw the start of the Commonwealth Games. Hosting over 6,500 athletes from 71 countries, the Games is an enormous endeavour, and, if the first four days is anything to go by, one that will be a real success both in terms of participation and delivery of a high quality event. The opening ceremonies included an extended segment on Glasgow itself, and it would have taken a hard individual indeed not to have felt proud of the sometimes very hard history and unique character of this often maligned city.

The Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. A celebration of excellence in sport, and a spirit of common purpose across the nations of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. A celebration of excellence in sport, and a spirit of common purpose across the nations of the Commonwealth.

Of course, the venues now completed, the ceremonies past, it is the sport itself that takes centre stage. Like the Olympics, the Commonwealth Games contains some team events, including hockey (field hockey to us Canadians), netball, and rugby sevens. However, by far the emphasis is on sports of the individual, and on the attainment of individual excellence. As a celebration of excellence across a collection of individuals, this of course makes it a very different kind of event compared to say, the just completed 2014 FIFA World Cup, similarly bringing together countries but in a celebration of a single sport, and in which, in the final, the best team beat the team with the best player (albeit not on his best day).

Which brings me to the science. Like sport, science is about the pursuit of excellence. Science can of course be done as a hobby, or purely for personal discovery but at its finest science is about the discovery of the new, and again like sport, the best of the new is achieved by the combination of discipline, long training and bursts of inspired creativity. Recent trends have emphasised the importance and need for multidisciplinary teams in science. Indeed, this was a key subject of the recent Boyd Orr conference, excellently led by the new co-directors of the Centre, Louise Matthews and Richard Reeve. In science which aims to solve real world health problems this is usually critical, due to the complexity of the problems we face, and rabies an excellent exemplar of this complexity, where, despite the existence of an entirely viable vaccine, surrounding issues complicate efforts to eradicate it.

Bigger and broader teams are also the emphasis of the funding bodies, both in terms of training of new scientists, and in terms of the research itself. There is of course considerable sense in removing duplication and enhancing value through partnerships, but such consortia both increase administrative burden, and inevitably lead to greater harmonisation. Can excellence be achieved by teams? Most certainly it can, and there are several palpable examples of this within the Boyd Orr Centre itself. But the hard graft of even the best teams, in sport and in science, must be punctuated by moments of individual brilliance in order to be truly outstanding – the pursuit of excellence is rarely served well by consensus alone. Perhaps the greatest trick of scientific discovery is how to listen to past evidence, and the arguments of colleagues and opponents, filtering out from this what is truly essential and not being swayed by consensus from developing a unique scientific voice. In my view, every scientist should spend his or her forty days in the wilderness – not, as in the Bible, as test of resolve in the face of temptation, but time spent apart from the multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary, multi-voiced environment to identify that voice. Finding that time is, of course, another matter.

Return of the blog – Boyd Orr Centre members at Buckingham Palace

Dear All,

Neither gone nor forgotten, just buried under a mountain of obligations. Sorry for the gap in blog posts, hope that these will resume with greater regularity as I finally find a bit of clear water through the myriad of responsibilities that too sadly mirror what many of my friends and colleagues experience.

Last Thursday, a group of ten members of the University of Glasgow attended the awards ceremony for the Queen’s Anniversary Prize at Buckingham Palace. As well as our Chancellor (Prof. Sir Kenneth Calman) and Vice-Chancellor (Prof. Anton Muscatelli), were myself, two key founding members of the Centre (Barb Mable and Richard Reeve), as well as five younger scientists who represent the engine of our research, the postdoctoral scientists (Richard Orton and Sunny Townsend) and Ph.D. students (Minnie Parmiter, Joaquin Prada, and Caroline Millins). After gathering in front of the Palace we were led in for the main ceremony where two individuals (for Glasgow, Anton Muscatelli and myself) received the award and a scroll from the Queen and Prince Phillip. I’m not exactly a monarchist, but neither am I a republican, and I do have a healthy respect for the role that the titular head of state has to play, and the usefulness (indeed importance) of separating out the ceremonial function of the head of state from the operational requirements of its “chief executive”. Plus I’m a sucker for a bit of history (so maybe I am a monarchist, of sorts). Monarchist or republican, there is no denying the grandeur one is presented with when entering Buckingham Palace, or the impact of being ushered into the room in which we received the award. Afterwards there was an informal meet and greet with the Queen and all the members of our group (where our good Dr. Orton somehow managed to promote the admittedly excellent work at Imperial College on SARS, rather than his own equally excellent work on FMD virus 🙂 ). The Queen seemed particularly impressed at the breadth of research going on, with every person she was introduced to working on yet another disease with real impact on human and animal health. Remarkably the Palace made what was a very formal occasion quite relaxed, a trick that takes real skill. Following the reception, the group of Boyd Orr Centre members gathered outside the palace for a few photos. It was a decidedly enjoyable day, one that was made so by the fact that it occurred amongst colleagues and friends.

Boyd Orr Centre members at Buckingham Palace for the Queen's Anniversary Prize Ceremony. From L to R, Joaquin Prada, Dan Haydon, Caroline Millins, Minnie Parmiter, Barb Mable, Richard Reeve, Rowland Kao, Sarah Cleaveland, Richard Orton, Sunny Townsend, Tiziana Lembo, and Louise Matthews.

Boyd Orr Centre members at Buckingham Palace for the Queen’s Anniversary Prize Ceremony. From L to R, Joaquin Prada, Dan Haydon, Caroline Millins, Minnie Parmieter, Barb Mable, Richard Reeve, Rowland Kao, Sarah Cleaveland, Richard Orton, Sunny Townsend, Tiziana Lembo, and Louise Matthews.

As noted in the last blog post, the QAP award is given for both excellence of research but also the impact that research has on the real world, and this is a combination that the Boyd Orr Centre excels at. The brief citation read out as we entered to receive the prize said:

The Boyd Orr Centre is recognized for the scientific excellence and
global impact of its work on infectious diseases to benefit the health
and livelihoods of agricultural communities and wildlife conservation.

This work goes on through the combined efforts of all of its members, from the least experienced student or technician, to the increasingly grey heads of those who lead it. A small group and only recently formed, its impact has been remarkable and it is a group that I am very proud to be a part of. This blog  also seems a very good place to ‘officially’ announce my stepping down as Director of the Centre, effective as of now. The award of the prize is indeed an excellent book end to my tenure. Its been a fantastic experience, but I’ve been acting as Director of the Centre for long enough and its time for others to inject some new energy into it. One of the things I’d like to see more of are initiatives that improve the linkages across Garscube and Gilmorehill. Considering the difficulties that even such small distances present for communication and collaboration, I don’t think we do too badly but, like marriages, is something that in my view should not be taken for granted, always needs to be worked on, and could always be done better. One way to do so is by expanding the responsibilities – being based largely at Garscube I often feel like I don’t know enough about what happens at Gilmorehill and thus some ‘directorial’ responsibilities across both campuses would have some benefits. Coherent with a consensus of the principal investigators of the Centre, a new leadership based on a co-Directorship between Richard Reeve and Louise Matthews will provide tangible, novel benefits to the Centre. They are both founding members and have been committed to the Boyd Orr Centre from the start, and thus if a joint Directorship is going to work they are in a good place to make it so as Louise (based at Garscube) and Richard (at Gilmorehill) both already expend a considerable effort keeping up an active presence in both campuses. While I shall continue to work on behalf of the Centre (including a commitment to continue this blog), I and others are confident that this new co-directorship will bring the Centre forward in a substantial way.